Grade 8: Eco Curriculum
• functions of cities
• settlement patterns (including internal structures of settlements and location patterns) in your country and elsewhere
• factors affecting settlement patterns, including:
affects of globalisation
• Natural resources (such as types of marine life, water, air, forests and soil) in your country and worldwide:
• how they are being used
• conservation and protection of resources (including wildlife)
• why conservation is necessary
• threats to conservation
• new opportunities to conserve resources such as community development, eco-tourism, ways to share resources sustainably
Effect of Industrial Revolution on environment – changing technology, agriculture and trade, exploitation, new world of work, growth of urban areas, social problems.
Effect of Industrialisation in Southern Africa – colonialism, World War 1 and technological divide
The learner will be able to use inquiry skills to investigate the past and the present via archaeological, historical and old manuscripts, statistics – but also questioning the validity of those resources.
Communicate knowledge and understanding by constructing own interpretation and argument based on historical sources (including extended writing, artwork, graphics and drama; use technology where available.
E.g. study the methods applied by archeologists to access the reliability of information obtained from objects that has been buried underground or from other natural means like rock paintings.
Historical Knowledge and Understanding
The learner will be able to apply historical knowledge and understanding by comparing causes and effects that took place during the same period, but had different results. He / she explains this in the context of the cultures in which such action and results took place
E.g. compare the success of certain environmental actions in various parts of the country – eradication of alien vegetation in terms of success, employment, sustainability and more.
The learner will be able to interpret aspects of history identifying how events have been interpreted differently afterwards than while it was occurring and also because of the influence of different value systems and traditions. He also explains the importance of preserving the cultural and natural heritage (objects, buildings, sites)
E.g. how one’s view of war could be interpreted based on culture and pride in natural heritage
Life and Living
Life processes and healthy living:
Summery: Real action should be applied to both preserve water resources and prevent pollution of it.
• Water makes up a large portion of all living things, and their health depends on water passing through them in various ways, using structures (such as kidneys, skin or stomata) which can fulfill this function.
• All living things, including humans, have means of eliminating waste products which are produced during life processes. Water plays an important role in this process.
• Knowledge of how to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, including the HIV virus, must be followed by behavior choices.
Interactions in Environments:
Summery: Successful reproduction secures continued existence.
• Human reproduction is more than conception and birth; it involves adults raising children, which requires judgement and values and usually depends on the behavior of other people in the community and environment.
• Each species of animal have characteristic behaviors which enables it to feed, find a mate, breed, raise young, live in a population of the same species, or escape threats in its particular environment. These behaviors have risen over long periods of time that the species population has been living in the same environment.
• All organisms have adaptations for survival in their habitats (such as adaptations for maintaining their water balance, obtaining and eating the kind of food they need, reproduction, protection or escape from predators.)
Bio-diversity, Change and Continuity:
Summery: Natural selection ensures survival of the healthy individuals in a given environment and so ensures a healthy and continued co-existence.
• Offspring of organisms differ in small ways from their parents and generally from each other. This is called variation in species.
• Natural selection kills those individuals of a species which lack the characteristics that would have enabled them to survive and reproduce successfully in their environment. Individuals who have characteristics suited to the environment reproduce successfully and some of their offspring carry the successful characteristics. Natural selection is accelerated when the environment changes; this can lead to the extinction of species.
The Planet Earth and Beyond
Our place in Space
Summery: In our solar system all energy is somehow derived from the sun.
• The earth is the third planet from the sun in a system that includes the moon, the sun, eight other planets and their moons, and smaller objects, such as asteroids and comets. The sun, an average star, is the central and largest body in the solar system.
• The sun is the major source of energy for phenomena on the earth’s surface, such as growth of plants, winds, ocean currents, and the water cycle.
LIFE ORIENTATION SPECIFIC THEME: Take care of your environment; take care of yourself
In the National Curriculum Framework no theory, but only practical application has been identified for this learning area.