Environment 6: Grade 11

Grade 11: Eco Curriculum

GEOGRAPHY

B. The significance of water masses (Context: Africa and the World)
■ The hydrological cycle.
■ Water masses of Africa: oceans, permanent ice, lakes, swamps, etc.
■ Climate change: effects of El Niño and La Niña in Africa.
■ Oceans as a major source of moisture and oxygen for the atmosphere, protein food and energy supply.
■ Impact of humans on oceans (e.g. pollution, over-exploitation).
■ Forms of exploitation and its impact on sustainable living (e.g. commercial and subsistence fishing, mining, dumping of waste).
■ Hazards and environmental management of hydrological systems (e.g. rivers, coastal resource management).

C. Ecosystems (biotic and abiotic components) (Context: Africa and the World)
■ Concepts (e.g. biosphere, ecosystem, biome, food webs and chains).
■ Ecological processes (e.g. energy flow, nutrient cycling, self-regulation).
■ Soil processes, soil profile and soil forming factors.
■ Human impact on ecosystems and the consequences.
■ Vegetation regions in Africa:
• distribution;
• comparing different biomes;
• human impact on different biomes.
■ Environmental relationships (influence of climate, soil, topography, veld fires on biomes).

E. People and their needs (Context: Africa)
■ Resource use and management:
• resources and their uses;
• distribution and utilisation of renewable and non-renewable natural resources;
• concepts of ‘resources
• extraction of raw materials, the conflicts and opportunities that are created;
• land use conflicts in national parks;
• the impact of values and attitudes of people affected.
■ Energy use and management:
• increasing demand for energy;
• relative and changing importance of fossil fuels, nuclear power and alternative energy sources;
• the environmental costs of energy provision;
• causes and effects of energy production related to pollution;
• causes and consequences of acid rain and the importance of international co-operation;
• environmental effects of resource and energy consumption on world temperatures;
• sustainable energy principles and approaches – consider new forms of energy and approaches to energy
conservation.
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

Human influences on environment

Food pyramids
Define a food pyramid
Distinguish between pyramids of numbers, biomass and energy
Construct food pyramids involving humans as one of the consumers

Effect of environmental changes on food pyramids
Overpopulation
 Analyse data on the changes in human population size over a period of time
 Using examples of food pyramids, describe the effects of human overpopulation on them
Pesticides
 List THREE examples of situations where humans may use pesticides
 Using examples of food chains, describe the effects of pesticides on food pyramids
 Discuss advantages and disadvantages of using pesticides
Culling
 Explain what is meant by culling
 List at least THREE reasons why animals are culled
 Using examples, describe the impact of culling on food pyramids
 Research attitudes of  people towards culling
Pollution
 Describe the effects on food pyramids of at least ONE example of each of the following types of pollution
o Air pollution
o Land pollution
o Water pollution
Deforestation
 State what is meant by deforestation
 Explain why deforestation occurs
 Describe the effects of deforestation on food production and consumers

Some global environmental concerns
Explain global warming, the greenhouse effect, acid rain and ozone depletion in terms of …
 the causes of each
 their effects on the environment
Sustaining / Management our Environment

Management of cause and effects of deforestation
Review factors that may lead to deforestation

Describe the effects of deforestation such as the impact on:
 Habitat of organisms
 Soil erosion
 Carbon cycle
 Water cycle

Explain ways in which deforestation can be reduced such as through:
 Re-use of wood products eg. paper
 Re-cycling wood products
 Using alternate sources for fuel other than wood

Explain ways in which the effects of deforestation can be managed such as through
 Harvesting forest products in a more sustainable way
 Replanting to replace the trees that have been removed/destroyed
 Encouraging tree planting in schools and in local communities

Discuss issues around the need to balance the need for deforestation with the need to remove these forests to satisfy human needs eg. agriculture, houses etc.

Management of the cause and effects of extinction
List factors that may lead to the extinction of plant and animal species

Describe the impact of the extinction of plant and animals species such as:
 Disrupting food chains through loss of biodiversity
 Loss of medicinal products derived from these plants and animals
 Loss of the valuable effect of the presence of plants and animals eg. loss of a particular species that is required as an agent of pollination or dispersal (insects, birds), or of a species that is an important participant in succession (eg. mosses and ferns) or in increasing soil fertility (leguminous plants that have nitrogen-fixing bacteria).

Explain ways in which extinction of species can be prevented

Conduct research on any one extinct animal with regard to:
 Where and when the organism existed
 What the organism ate
 The ecological role of the organism
 Circumstances that led to its extinction

Describe any ONE current human activity that may contribute to the extinction of species, such as habitat destruction, over-exploitation for purposes of food, medicine etc., excessive use of pesticides etc.
BIODIVERSITY, CHANGE AND CONTINUITY
Population studies

Introduction
Define a population as a group of organisms of the same species which live in the same habitat so that random interbreeding takes place
Define a species as a group of organisms which share the same characteristics and are capable of interbreeding
Define a community as a group of populations living together in the same habitat.
Social behaviour

Introduction
Explain what is meant by each of the following concepts as it relates to the survival of populations
 Preservation
 Conservation
 Sustainability

Examples of social behaviours
Explain how each of the following social behaviours contributes to the survival of populations:
 Predation
 Competition
 Courtship/Mating behaviour
 Altruism
 Territoriality
 Interaction of successive broods
 Analyse given data and findings to evaluate the impact of particular social behaviours on the survival of populations

Managing populations

Significance and value of biodiversity
Discuss the significance and value of biodiversity to ecosystem function and human survival for each of the following:
• food
• materials for clothing and shelter
• energy for transport and everyday use
• medicines
• eco-tourism

Threats to biodiversity
Describe how any THREE of the following poses a threat to biodiversity:
• Deforestation
• Agricultural practices
• Pollution
• Over-exploitation of resources