Grade 8: Eco Curriculum
• Natural resources (such as types of marine life, water, air, forests and soil) in your country and worldwide:
• how they are being used
• conservation and protection of resources (including wildlife)
• why conservation is necessary
• threats to conservation
• new opportunities to conserve resources such as community development, eco-tourism, ways to share resources sustainably
Effect of Industrial Revolution on environment – changing technology, agriculture and trade, exploitation, new world of work, growth of urban areas, social problems.
Effect of Industrialisation in Southern Africa
Life and Living
Life processes and healthy living:
Summery: Real action should be applied to both preserve water resources and prevent pollution of it.
• Water makes up a large portion of all living things, and their health depends on water passing through them in various ways, using structures (such as kidneys, skin or stomata) which can fulfill this function.
• All living things, including humans, have means of eliminating waste products which are produced during life processes. Water plays an important role in this process.
• Knowledge of how to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, including the HIV virus, must be followed by behavior choices.
Interactions in Environments:
Summery: Successful reproduction secures continued existence.
• Human reproduction is more than conception and birth; it involves adults raising children, which requires judgement and values and usually depends on the behavior of other people in the community and environment.
• Each species of animal have characteristic behaviors which enables it to feed, find a mate, breed, raise young, live in a population of the same species, or escape threats in its particular environment. These behaviors have risen over long periods of time that the species population has been living in the same environment.
• All organisms have adaptations for survival in their habitats (such as adaptations for maintaining their water balance, obtaining and eating the kind of food they need, reproduction, protection or escape from predators.)
Bio-diversity, Change and Continuity:
Summery: Natural selection ensures survival of the healthy individuals in a given environment and so ensures a healthy and continued co-existence.
• Offspring of organisms differ in small ways from their parents and generally from each other. This is called variation in species.
• Natural selection kills those individuals of a species which lack the characteristics that would have enabled them to survive and reproduce successfully in their environment. Individuals who have characteristics suited to the environment reproduce successfully and some of their offspring carry the successful characteristics. Natural selection is accelerated when the environment changes; this can lead to the extinction of species.
The Planet Earth and Beyond
Our place in Space
Summery: In our solar system all energy is somehow derived from the sun.
• The earth is the third planet from the sun in a system that includes the moon, the sun, eight other planets and their moons, and smaller objects, such as asteroids and comets. The sun, an average star, is the central and largest body in the solar system.
• The sun is the major source of energy for phenomena on the earth’s surface, such as growth of plants, winds, ocean currents, and the water cycle.
Atmosphere and weather
Summery: The gaseous composition of the atmosphere is crucial to maintain life.
• The outer layers of the earth are the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the lithosphere. We live in the biosphere, which is where all these layers interact to support life.
• The atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen in fairly constant proportions, and small quantities of smaller gases that include water vapour. The atmosphere has different properties at different elevations.
The Changing Earth
Summery: As animals have changed over millions of years, so landscapes also change, either over long periods or via catastrophic events. Make a point of the fact that soil cannot quickly be formed.
• The planet earth has a layered structure, with lithosphere, a hot, convecting mantle and a dense, metallic core.
• Lithospheric plates larger than some continents constantly moves at rates of centimetres per year, in response to movements in the mantle. Major geological events, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and mountain building, result from these plate motions.
• Landforms are the result of a combination of constructive and destructive forces. Constructive forces include crustal deformation, volcanic eruption, and deposition of sediment, while destructive forces include weathering and erosion.
LIFE ORIENTATION SPECIFIC THEME: Take care of your environment; take care of yourself
In the National Curriculum Framework no theory, but only practical application has been identified for this learning area.