Grade 12: Eco Curriculum
B. Climate and weather (Context: South Africa and the World)
■ Changes in energy balance.
■ Human-made climates (urban climate).
■ Climate hazards and human response to these – risk and vulnerability.
C. Fluvial processes and landforms (Context: South Africa)
• drainage basins: characteristics, drainage patterns, importance and impact of humans;
• catchment and river management.
D. People and places: rural and urban settlement (Context: South Africa and Africa)
■ With regard to processes and spatial patterns involved in rural and urban settlements:
• settlement function, size and situation, density, hierarchy, services, (urban) profile;
• population size, structure and patterns, land use characteristics, land use zones, the sphere of influence.
■ Key human-environment interactions in rural settlements:
• settlement issues: rural depopulation, closure of services, ageing of population, political influences,
governance of rural settlements (local authorities, Agenda 21).
■ Key human-environment interactions in urban settlements:
• settlement issues: inner city problems, renewal, urban blight, congestion, pollution and land use
conflict, standards of living, political influences;
• post-modern urban settlements
Key sustainability-related strategies include:
• rural: sustainable strategies to manage dwindling rural settlements, land reform and land redistribution,
impact of HIV/AIDS and wars (refugees and displaced people) on rural settlement patterns.
• urban: new towns, inner city renewal, self-help cities, urban planning, sustainable strategies to manage
expanding centres, informal settlements;
E. People and their needs (Context: South Africa and the World)
■ Economic activities:
• primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary economic activities;
• influence of economic, physical, political, social factors;
• perceptions of decision-makers on the location of industries and other economic activities;
• impact of humans on the location of economic activities;
• response of people to environmental and socio-economic injustices linked to economic activities;
• impact of the change of location of economic activities on people;
• importance and challenges of the informal sector in different contexts;
• influence of globalisation on economies and change;
• agriculture as an economic activity: special emphasis on southern Africa, food security, risks and vulnerability;
• transport and trade.
■ Water as a critical resource in South Africa:
• availability of water;
• distribution and supply of water to South African citizens;
• sustainable use and management of water.
BIODIVERSITY, CHANGE AND CONTINUITY
Define the terms: population and a species
Explain what is meant by diversity and how the discovery of new species increases this biodiversity
Explain what is meant by extinction and that how this leads to a decrease in biodiversity
State that evolution may lead increased diversity or to extinction of species
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Local Environmental Issues)
Explain of the following concepts studied in Grades 10 and 11in a local environment
• Biotic and abiotic components
• Interactions between the biotic and abiotic components such as food chains, food webs and energy flow,
competition and predation
Explain extinction and loss of biodiversity (studied in Grades 10 and 11) as it relates to of local indigenous resources by focussing on:
• Threats to biodiversity
• Categories of organisms which are extinct or threatened with extinction
• Examples of South African organisms which are extinct or threatened with extinction
Review of the Red-data listing
South African resources
List some South African natural resources
• Plants (Devil’s claw, rooibos, fynbos and African potato etc.)
• Animals (perlemoen, fish, game etc.)
• Minerals (coal, oil etc)
Exploitation of South African natural resources
Describe why exploitation of resources takes place
Describe the value of sustaining natural resources
Discuss the cause and effect of overexploitation and corrective management actions for each of the following:
• Resources for Food:
o Exploitation of fish or perlemoen
o Exploitation of at least one other example in your local environment
• Resources for Medicinal Purposes (Western and Traditional):
Exploitation of any one resource such as Devil’s claw, Rooibos, Hoodia, African potato, or the Rhinoceros horn or any other example.
Effect of Pollutants on Human Physiology and Health
State that pollution is any undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air, water or land.
Differentiate between degradable and non-degradable pollutants using examples
List types of pollution: air, water, soil (land) and provide examples of the pollutant in each case.
List major air pollutants (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, pesticides, lead, chlorine and asbestos)
Investigate the air pollutant/s in your local environment
• Describe its effects on human physiology and health (asthma, allergies, cancer)
• Discuss solutions to the challenges of air pollution
• Discuss legal and ethical issues around air pollution
List sources of water pollution (sewage, industrial wastes and use of detergents)
Investigate the water pollutant/s in your local environment
• Describe its effects on human physiology and health (gastro enteritis, cancer, typhoid and allergies)
• Discuss solutions to the challenges of water pollution
Discuss legal and ethical issues around water pollution
List sources of soil pollution (sewage, industrial wastes, radioactive wastes from nuclear plants, fertilisers and non-degradable solid wastes)
Investigate the soil pollutant/s in your local environment
• Describe its effects on human physiology and health (cancer, food poisoning)
• Discuss solutions to the challenges of soil pollution
• Discuss legal and ethical issues around soil pollution
Investigate the management of waste (solid waste, sewage) under the following headings:
• Effect on biotic and abiotic components
Legal and ethical issues