Environment 3: Grade 11

Grade 11: Eco Curriculum


B. The significance of water masses (Context: Africa and the World)
■ The hydrological cycle.
■ Water masses of Africa: oceans, permanent ice, lakes, swamps, etc.
■ Climate change: effects of El Niño and La Niña in Africa.
■ Hazards (flooding and drought) and the response of humans.
■ Oceans as a major source of moisture and oxygen for the atmosphere, protein food and energy supply.
■ Role of oceans: climate control, world trade and as a source of food.
■ Impact of humans on oceans (e.g. pollution, over-exploitation).
■ Forms of exploitation and its impact on sustainable living (e.g. commercial and subsistence fishing, mining,
dumping of waste).
■ Coastal environments: natural forces – erosion, deposition.
■ Hazards and environmental management of hydrological systems (e.g. rivers, coastal resource management).

C. Ecosystems (biotic and abiotic components) (Context: Africa and the World)
■ Human impact on ecosystems and the consequences.
■ Vegetation regions in Africa:
• distribution;
• comparing different biomes;
• human impact on different biomes.
■ Environmental relationships (influence of climate, soil, topography, veld fires on biomes).

D. Development and sustainability (Context: Africa and the World)
■ Concepts of ‘development’ and ‘sustainability’ at global and national scales.
■ Indicators of development (social or economic) and sustainability.
■ Models and theories of development over time.
■ Rural and urban development: successes and failures.
■ The unevenness of development globally (North/South divide).
■ Contrasting developed and developing countries in terms of indicators.
■ Role of agriculture, industry, aid, globalisation in development using case studies.
■ Changing patterns of agriculture, industry, transport, trade and settlement.
■ Strategies by people, organisations and nations to address development problems.
■ Application of development strategies in local context.

E. People and their needs (Context: Africa)
■ Resource use and management:
• resources and their uses;
• distribution and utilisation of renewable and non-renewable natural resources;
• concepts of ‘resources
• extraction of raw materials, the conflicts and opportunities that are created;
• land use conflicts in national parks;
• the impact of values and attitudes of people affected.
■ Energy use and management:
• increasing demand for energy;
• relative and changing importance of fossil fuels, nuclear power and alternative energy sources;
• the environmental costs of energy provision;
• causes and effects of energy production related to pollution;
• causes and consequences of acid rain and the importance of international co-operation;
• environmental effects of resource and energy consumption on world temperatures;
• sustainable energy principles and approaches – consider new forms of energy and approaches to energy conservation.


Human influences on environment

Food pyramids
Define a food pyramid
Distinguish between pyramids of numbers, biomass and energy
Construct food pyramids involving humans as one of the consumers

Effect of environmental changes on food pyramids
 Analyse data on the changes in human population size over a period of time
 Using examples of food pyramids, describe the effects of human overpopulation on them
 Describe the effects on food pyramids of at least ONE example of each of the following types of pollution
o Air pollution
o Land pollution
o Water pollution
 State what is meant by deforestation
 Explain why deforestation occurs
 Describe the effects of deforestation on food production and consumers

Some global environmental concerns
Explain global warming, the greenhouse effect, acid rain and ozone depletion in terms of …
 the causes of each
 their effects on the environment
Sustaining / Management our Environment

Management of cause and effects of pollution
Review the causes and effects of examples of air, water and land pollution

For each type of pollution:
 Explain ways in which that type of pollution can be prevented/controlled
 Explain how the effects of each type of pollution can be reduced / eliminated

Research any one example of pollution in your school or local community to identify the causes of this pollution and list ways in which the incidence of pollution and its effects can be reduced.

Discuss legislation relating to pollution

Management of cause and effects of deforestation
Explain ways in which deforestation can be reduced such as through:
 Re-use of wood products eg. paper
 Re-cycling wood products
 Using alternate sources for fuel other than wood

Explain ways in which the effects of deforestation can be managed such as through
 Harvesting forest products in a more sustainable way
 Replanting to replace the trees that have been removed/destroyed
 Encouraging tree planting in schools and in local communities

Discuss issues around the need to balance the need for deforestation with the need to remove these forests to satisfy human needs eg. agriculture, houses etc.

Management of the use of land
List some of the main ways in which land is used such as for:
 agriculture
 grazing
 housing
 industries
 mining
Discuss problems related to each of the above-mentioned land uses and possible solutions to the problems.
Discuss the influence of past and present politics on the availability and use of land
Eg.: Overgrazing results in erosion. To prevent this, the number of animals should be allocated to a grazing area according to the carrying capacity of that area.
Draw a pie chart to represent the usage of your school property for each of the following purposes:
 School buildings
 Parking
 Cultivated gardens
 Natural vegetation
 Sports fields/Playgrounds

Use the information from the pie chart to explain ways in which land use of the school property could be improved from an environmental point of view.



Population growth and Determination of population size
State that a population growth pattern/form refers to the pattern of change in the size of a population over a period of time
Explain what is meant by environmental resistance and carrying capacity
Using graphs, outline the characteristics of the following growth patterns/forms
 Geometric growth form(j-shaped curve)
 Logistic growth form (s-shaped curve)
Describe the pattern of human population growth from 1650 to the present to highlight the following:
 The rapid increase in the population size
 The time taken for each doubling of the population
 Making predictions about future growth of the human population
Analyse given data and findings to evaluate growth of human populations eg. comparison of population growth in first- and third world countries.
Describe the following methods that could be used to determine population size:
 Direct technique (census)
 Indirect technique – simple sampling
– mark recapture
Conduct practical work, using any indirect technique, to determine the size of a population
Social behaviour

Significance and value of biodiversity
Discuss the significance and value of biodiversity to ecosystem function and human survival for each of the following:
• food
• materials for clothing and shelter
• energy for transport and everyday use
• medicines

Threats to biodiversity
Describe how any THREE of the following poses a threat to biodiversity:
• Deforestation
• Diseases
• Agricultural practices
• Natural disasters
• Pollution
• Desertification
• Alien invasive plants
• Over-exploitation of resources

Name at least TWO plants and TWO animals that have become extinct over the past years
Name at least TWO plants and TWO animals that are considered as endangered species  in the red data list
Discuss the impact of the over-use of  plants and animals for muti and traditional purposes as well as for Western medicine and suggest strategies that could be used to manage this practice