Environment 1: Grade 12

Grade 12: Eco Curriculum


D. People and places: rural and urban settlement (Context: South Africa and Africa)
■ Key human-environment interactions in urban settlements:
• settlement issues: inner city problems, renewal, urban blight, congestion, pollution and land use
conflict, standards of living, political influences;
• post-modern urban settlements
Key sustainability-related strategies include:
• rural: sustainable strategies to manage dwindling rural settlements, land reform and land redistribution,
impact of HIV/AIDS and wars (refugees and displaced people) on rural settlement patterns.
• urban: new towns, inner city renewal, self-help cities, urban planning, sustainable strategies to manage
expanding centres, informal settlements;

E. People and their needs (Context: South Africa and the World)
■ Economic activities:
• response of people to environmental and socio-economic injustices linked to economic activities;
• impact of the change of location of economic activities on people;
• importance and challenges of the informal sector in different contexts;
• influence of globalisation on economies and change;
• agriculture as an economic activity: special emphasis on southern Africa, food security, risks and vulnerability;


ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (Local Environmental Issues)

Explain of the following concepts studied in Grades 10 and 11in a local environment
• Ecosystem
• Environment
• Biotic and abiotic components
• Interactions between the biotic and abiotic components such as  food chains, food webs and energy flow,
competition and predation
Explain extinction and loss of biodiversity (studied in Grades 10 and 11) as it relates to of local indigenous resources by focussing on:
• Threats to biodiversity
• Categories of organisms which are extinct or threatened with extinction
• Examples of South African organisms which are extinct or threatened with extinction
Review of the Red-data listing

South African resources
List  some South African natural resources
• Plants (Devil’s claw, rooibos, fynbos and African potato etc.)
• Animals (perlemoen, fish, game etc.)
• Minerals (coal, oil etc)
• Land

Exploitation of South African natural resources
Describe why exploitation of resources takes place
Describe the value of sustaining natural resources

Discuss the cause and effect of overexploitation and corrective management actions for each of  the following:
• Resources for Food:
o Exploitation of fish or perlemoen
o Exploitation of at least one other example in your local environment
• Resources for Medicinal Purposes (Western and Traditional):
Exploitation of any one resource such as Devil’s claw, Rooibos, Hoodia, African potato, or the Rhinoceros horn or any other example.
Effect of Pollutants on Human Physiology and Health

State that pollution is any undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air, water or land.
Differentiate between degradable and non-degradable pollutants using examples
List types of pollution: air, water, soil (land) and provide examples of the pollutant in each case.
List major air pollutants (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, pesticides, lead, chlorine and asbestos)
Investigate the air pollutant/s in your local environment
• Describe its effects on human physiology and health (asthma, allergies, cancer)
• Discuss solutions to the challenges of air pollution
• Discuss legal and ethical issues around air pollution
List sources of water pollution (sewage, industrial  wastes and use of detergents)
Investigate the water pollutant/s in your local environment
• Describe its effects on human physiology and health (gastro enteritis, cancer, typhoid and allergies)
• Discuss solutions to the challenges of water pollution
Discuss legal and ethical issues around water pollution

Waste management
Investigate the management of waste (solid waste, sewage) under the following headings:
• Responsibility
• Effect on biotic and abiotic components
Legal and ethical issues