Grade 11: Eco Curriculum
B. The significance of water masses (Context: Africa and the World)
■ Impact of humans on oceans (e.g. pollution, over-exploitation).
■ Forms of exploitation and its impact on sustainable living (e.g. commercial and subsistence fishing, mining, dumping of waste).
■ Hazards and environmental management of hydrological systems (e.g. rivers, coastal resource management).
C. Ecosystems (biotic and abiotic components) (Context: Africa and the World)
■ Human impact on ecosystems and the consequences.
■ Vegetation regions in Africa:
• comparing different biomes;
• human impact on different biomes.
D. Development and sustainability (Context: Africa and the World)
■ Concepts of ‘development’ and ‘sustainability’ at global and national scales.
■ Indicators of development (social or economic) and sustainability.
■ Models and theories of development over time.
■ Rural and urban development: successes and failures.
■ The unevenness of development globally (North/South divide).
■ Contrasting developed and developing countries in terms of indicators.
■ Role of agriculture, industry, aid, globalisation in development using case studies.
■ Changing patterns of agriculture, industry, transport, trade and settlement.
■ Strategies by people, organisations and nations to address development problems.
E. People and their needs (Context: Africa)
■ Resource use and management:
• resources and their uses;
• distribution and utilisation of renewable and non-renewable natural resources;
• concepts of ‘resources’
• extraction of raw materials, the conflicts and opportunities that are created;
• land use conflicts in national parks;
• the impact of values and attitudes of people affected.
■ Energy use and management:
• increasing demand for energy;
• relative and changing importance of fossil fuels, nuclear power and alternative energy sources;
• the environmental costs of energy provision;
• causes and effects of energy production related to pollution;
• causes and consequences of acid rain and the importance of international co-operation;
• environmental effects of resource and energy consumption on world temperatures;
• sustainable energy principles and approaches – consider new forms of energy and approaches to energy
Human influences on environment
Effect of environmental changes on food pyramids
Explain what is meant by culling
List at least THREE reasons why animals are culled
Using examples, describe the impact of culling on food pyramids
Research attitudes of people towards culling
Describe the effects on food pyramids of at least ONE example of each of the following types of pollution
o Air pollution
o Land pollution
o Water pollution
State what is meant by deforestation
Explain why deforestation occurs
Describe the effects of deforestation on food production and consumers
Sustaining / Management our Environment
Management of cause and effects of pollution
Review the causes and effects of examples of air, water and land pollution
For each type of pollution:
Explain ways in which that type of pollution can be prevented/controlled
Explain how the effects of each type of pollution can be reduced / eliminated
Research any one example of pollution in your school or local community to identify the causes of this pollution and list ways in which the incidence of pollution and its effects can be reduced.
Discuss legislation relating to pollution
Management of cause and effects of deforestation
Review factors that may lead to deforestation
Describe the effects of deforestation such as the impact on:
Habitat of organisms
Explain ways in which deforestation can be reduced such as through:
Re-use of wood products eg. paper
Re-cycling wood products
Using alternate sources for fuel other than wood
Explain ways in which the effects of deforestation can be managed such as through
Harvesting forest products in a more sustainable way
Replanting to replace the trees that have been removed/destroyed
Encouraging tree planting in schools and in local communities
Discuss issues around the need to balance the need for deforestation with the need to remove these forests to satisfy human needs eg. agriculture, houses etc.
Management of the cause and effects of extinction
List factors that may lead to the extinction of plant and animal species
Describe the impact of the extinction of plant and animals species such as:
Disrupting food chains through loss of biodiversity
Loss of medicinal products derived from these plants and animals
Loss of the valuable effect of the presence of plants and animals eg. loss of a particular species that is required as an agent of pollination or dispersal (insects, birds), or of a species that is an important participant in succession (eg. mosses and ferns) or in increasing soil fertility (leguminous plants that have nitrogen-fixing bacteria).
Explain ways in which extinction of species can be prevented
Conduct research on any one extinct animal with regard to:
Where and when the organism existed
What the organism ate
The ecological role of the organism
Circumstances that led to its extinction
Describe any ONE current human activity that may contribute to the extinction of species, such as habitat destruction, over-exploitation for purposes of food, medicine etc., excessive use of pesticides etc.
BIODIVERSITY, CHANGE AND CONTINUITY
Threats to biodiversity
Describe how any THREE of the following poses a threat to biodiversity:
• Over-exploitation of resources
Discuss the impact of the over-use of plants and animals for muti and traditional purposes as well as for Western medicine and suggest strategies that could be used to manage this practice
Biodiversity of plants and animals and their conservation
Conduct research on ONE example of a successful conservation strategy to address the following:
• State which plant or animal resource was conserved
• Explain why there was a need for conservation
• List reasons for the success of the conservation strategy
• Describe some challenges experienced, if any
• Explain the impact of the selected strategy on biodiversity
Discuss legislation pertaining to ONE example of conservation and sustainable use of indigenous fauna and flora such as:
• Permits for fishing
• banning the catching of undersized fish
• limiting numbers of fish caught
• permits for cycads