Grade 9: Eco Curriculum
• Development issues:
• approaches to development:
concepts of developing, developed, sustainable development and sustainability
applicability to your country and elsewhere
• the role of science and technology:
effect on development and its effect on the environment
the Green Revolution
modification of crops
use of appropriate technology
• Sustainable use of resources:
• principles of Agenda 21, such as the need for everybody to participate in the management of resources
• the dependence of all people on natural resources for their livelihood and survival
• the need for all our actions to ensure future sustainability
• the need for everybody to be actively involved in addressing environmental problems (e.g. pollution, waste disposal)
• Social and environmental conflicts in your country:
• comparison with other countries in Africa and elsewhere
• the role of power, control and discrimination (including racism and xenophobia) in shaping access to and use of resources such as land, food, water, housing and jobs
• use of relevant case studies
Life and Living
Life processes and healthy living:
Summery: Without fertile soil, plants cannot produce the nutrients required for healthy living. This natural resource should be protected.
• Green plants use energy from the sun, water and carbon dioxide from the air to make food by photosynthesis. This chemical reaction is central to the survival of all organisms living on earth.
• Animals including humans require protein, fat, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and water. Food taken in is absorbed by the body via the intestine. Surplus food is stored as fat or carbohydrate.
Interactions in Environments:
Summery: As humans we have the cognitive ability to make choices and should by all means encourage the well-being of all elements in the system.
• Pollution interferes with natural processes that maintain the interdependencies and diversity of an ecosystem.
• Many biological changes, including decomposition and recycling of matter in ecosystems and human diseases, are caused by invisibly small, quickly reproducing organisms.
Bio-diversity, Change and Continuity:
Summery: As humans we have the cognitive ability to make choices to understand this co-existence and should by all means encourage the well-being of all elements in the system.
• Human activities such as the introduction of alien species, habitat destruction, population growth, pollution and over consumption, result in the loss of bio-diversity. This becomes evident when more species become endangered or ultimately extinct.
• Extinction also occur through natural events. Mass extinctions have occurred in the past, suggesting that huge changes to environments have occurred. However these changes occurred very slowly, compared to the fast rate at which humans can destroy plant and animal species. (Links with soil in Planet Earth and Beyond)
The Planet Earth and Beyond
The Changing Earth
Summery: In pre-historic history minerals have been deposited for various reasons at different places across the globe; as fossil fuels were formed over millions of years. Point out the harmful effects of fossil fuel and mining on the environment.
• Fossil fuels such as coal, gas and oil are the remains of plants and animals that were buried and fossilized at high pressures. These fuels are not renewable in our lifetimes. (Links with Energy and Change)
• Mining is a major industry in Africa, with local examples in all the nine provinces. It is important in terms of the supply of coal for energy, essential raw materials for other industries, employment and earnings for the country. A great number of other industries depend on the mining industry. Legislation controls mining with regard to safety and environmental effects.
Sustainable Growth & Development:
Summery: Importance of economic growth and global competition to ensure prosperity
• Explain the role of savings and investments in economic prosperity and growth.
• Discuss productivity and its effects on economic prosperity, growth and global competition
Technological processes and skills:
Summery: Identify a ‘real-life need and then design a product to fulfill the need taking into account safety and environmental considerations.
• List product and design specifications and constraints for a solution to an identified problem, need or opportunity based on all of the design key words listed below:
• Environment: where the product will be used or made, impact on the environment in the long and short term;